后端

微服务(五)——服务注册与发现:Zookeeper&Consul

Nick · 6月28日 · 2022年 · · 本文17434字 · 阅读44分钟122

zookeeper

zookeeper安装和学习

查看上一篇博客:https://qkongtao.cn/?p=1403

服务提供者注册进zookeeper

  • 注册中心Zookeeper

zookeeper是一个分布式协调工具,可以实现注册中心功能

关闭Linux服务器防火墙后,启动zookeeper服务器

用到的Linux命令行:

  • systemctl stop firewalld关闭防火墙
  • systemctl status firewalld查看防火墙状态
  • ipconfig查看IP地址
  • ping查验结果

zookeeper服务器取代Eureka服务器,zk作为服务注册中心

  • 服务提供者
  1. 新建名为cloud-provider-payment8004的Maven工程。

  2. POM

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <parent>
        <artifactId>springcloud</artifactId>
        <groupId>cn.kt</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <artifactId>cloud-provider-payment8004</artifactId>

    <properties>
        <maven.compiler.source>8</maven.compiler.source>
        <maven.compiler.target>8</maven.compiler.target>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <!-- SpringBoot整合Web组件 -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <!--引入自己的公共api-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>cn.kt</groupId>
            <artifactId>cloud-api-commons</artifactId>
            <version>${project.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <!-- SpringBoot整合zookeeper客户端 -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-zookeeper-discovery</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
            <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
</project>
  1. YML
#8004表示注册到zookeeper服务器的支付服务提供者端口号
server:
  port: 8004

#服务别名----注册zookeeper到注册中心名称
spring:
  application:
    name: cloud-provider-payment
  cloud:
    zookeeper:
      connect-string: 127.0.0.1:2181 # 192.168.111.144:2181 #
  1. 主启动类
package cn.kt.springcloud;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.cloud.client.discovery.EnableDiscoveryClient;

/**
 * Created by tao.
 * Date: 2022/6/27 00:45
 * 描述:
 */
@SpringBootApplication
@EnableDiscoveryClient//该注解用于向使用consul或者zookeeper作为注册中心时注册服务
public class PaymentMain8004 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(PaymentMain8004.class, args);
    }
}
  1. Controller
package cn.kt.springcloud.controller;

import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Value;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

import java.util.UUID;

/**
 * Created by tao.
 * Date: 2022/6/27 00:47
 * 描述:
 */
@RestController
@Slf4j
public class PaymentController
{
    @Value("${server.port}")
    private String serverPort;

    @RequestMapping(value = "/payment/zk")
    public String paymentzk()
    {
        return "springcloud with zookeeper: "+serverPort+"\t"+ UUID.randomUUID().toString();
    }
}

6.启动8004注册进zookeeper(要先启动zookeeper的server)

  • 验证测试:浏览器 - http\://localhost:8004/payment/zk
  • 验证测试2 :接着用zookeeper客户端操作
[zk: 127.0.0.1:2181(CONNECTED) 0] ls /
[haizeiwang, services, zookeeper]
[zk: 127.0.0.1:2181(CONNECTED) 1] ls /services 
[cloud-provider-payment]
[zk: 127.0.0.1:2181(CONNECTED) 2] ls /services/cloud-provider-payment 
[2af7c34a-2ee5-42ed-a3b5-b11c91724c92]
[zk: 127.0.0.1:2181(CONNECTED) 3] get /services/cloud-provider-payment/2af7c34a-2ee5-42ed-a3b5-b11c91724c92 
{"name":"cloud-provider-payment","id":"2af7c34a-2ee5-42ed-a3b5-b11c91724c92","address":"192.168.0.100","port":8004,"sslPort":null,"payload":{"@class":"org.springframework.cloud.zookeeper.discovery.ZookeeperInstance","id":"application-1","name":"cloud-provider-payment","metadata":{}},"registrationTimeUTC":1656262513962,"serviceType":"DYNAMIC","uriSpec":{"parts":[{"value":"scheme","variable":true},{"value":"://","variable":false},{"value":"address","variable":true},{"value":":","variable":false},{"value":"port","variable":true}]}}
[zk: 127.0.0.1:2181(CONNECTED) 4] 

json格式化get /services/cloud-provider-payment/2af7c34a-2ee5-42ed-a3b5-b11c91724c92 的结果:

{
    "name": "cloud-provider-payment",
    "id": "2af7c34a-2ee5-42ed-a3b5-b11c91724c92",
    "address": "192.168.0.100",
    "port": 8004,
    "sslPort": null,
    "payload": {
        "@class": "org.springframework.cloud.zookeeper.discovery.ZookeeperInstance",
        "id": "application-1",
        "name": "cloud-provider-payment",
        "metadata": {}
    },
    "registrationTimeUTC": 1656262513962,
    "serviceType": "DYNAMIC",
    "uriSpec": {
        "parts": [{
            "value": "scheme",
            "variable": true
        }, {
            "value": "://",
            "variable": false
        }, {
            "value": "address",
            "variable": true
        }, {
            "value": ":",
            "variable": false
        }, {
            "value": "port",
            "variable": true
        }]
    }
}

ZooKeeper的服务节点是临时节点,没有Eureka那含情脉脉。

服务消费者注册进zookeeper

  1. 新建cloud-consumerzk-order80

  2. POM

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <parent>
        <artifactId>springcloud</artifactId>
        <groupId>cn.kt</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <artifactId>cloud-consumerzk-order80</artifactId>

    <properties>
        <maven.compiler.source>8</maven.compiler.source>
        <maven.compiler.target>8</maven.compiler.target>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <!-- SpringBoot整合Web组件 -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <!--引入自己的公共api-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>cn.kt</groupId>
            <artifactId>cloud-api-commons</artifactId>
            <version>${project.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <!-- SpringBoot整合zookeeper客户端 -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-zookeeper-discovery</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
            <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
</project>
  1. YML
server:
  port: 80

#服务别名----注册zookeeper到注册中心名称
spring:
  application:
    name: cloud-consumer-order
  cloud:
    zookeeper:
      connect-string: 10.211.55.5:2181
  1. 主启动
package cn.kt.springcloud;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.cloud.client.discovery.EnableDiscoveryClient;

/**
 * Created by tao.
 * Date: 2022/6/27 01:25
 * 描述:
 */
@SpringBootApplication
@EnableDiscoveryClient
public class OrderZKMain80 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(OrderZKMain80.class, args);
    }
}
  1. 业务类
package cn.kt.springcloud.config;

import org.springframework.cloud.client.loadbalancer.LoadBalanced;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.web.client.RestTemplate;

/**
 * Created by tao.
 * Date: 2022/6/27 01:26
 * 描述:
 */

@Configuration
public class ApplicationContextConfig {
    @Bean
    @LoadBalanced
    public RestTemplate getRestTemplate() {
        return new RestTemplate();
    }
}
package cn.kt.springcloud.controller;

import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;
import org.springframework.web.client.RestTemplate;

import javax.annotation.Resource;

/**
 * Created by tao.
 * Date: 2022/6/27 01:27
 * 描述:
 */

@RestController
@Slf4j
public class OrderZKController {
    public static final String INVOKE_URL = "http://cloud-provider-payment";

    @Resource
    private RestTemplate restTemplate;

    @GetMapping(value = "/consumer/payment/zk")
    public String paymentInfo() {
        String result = restTemplate.getForObject(INVOKE_URL + "/payment/zk", String.class);
        return result;
    }
}
  1. 验证测试

运行ZooKeeper服务端,cloud-consumerzk-order80,cloud-provider-payment8004。

打开ZooKeeper客户端:

[zk: 127.0.0.1:2181(CONNECTED) 4] ls /
[haizeiwang, services, zookeeper]
[zk: 127.0.0.1:2181(CONNECTED) 5] ls /services 
[cloud-consumer-order, cloud-provider-payment]
[zk: 127.0.0.1:2181(CONNECTED) 6] 

7.访问测试地址 - http://localhost/consumer/payment/zk

Consul

Consul简介

Consul官网

Consul下载地址

What is Consul?

Consul is a service mesh solution providing a full featured control plane with service discovery, configuration, and segmentation functionality. Each of these features can be used individually as needed, or they can be used together to build a full service mesh. Consul requires a data plane and supports both a proxy and native integration model. Consul ships with a simple built-in proxy so that everything works out of the box, but also supports 3rd party proxy integrations such as Envoy. link

Consul是一个服务网格解决方案,它提供了一个功能齐全的控制平面,具有服务发现、配置和分段功能。这些特性中的每一个都可以根据需要单独使用,也可以一起用于构建全服务网格。Consul需要一个数据平面,并支持代理和本机集成模型。Consul船与一个简单的内置代理,使一切工作的开箱即用,但也支持第三方代理集成,如Envoy。

consul\
英 [ˈkɒnsl] 美 [ˈkɑːnsl]\
n. 领事

Consul是一套开源的分布式服务发现和配置管理系统,由HashiCorp 公司用Go语言开发。

提供了微服务系统中的服务治理、配置中心、控制总线等功能。这些功能中的每一个都可以根据需要单独使用,也可以一起使用以构建全方位的服务网格,总之Consul提供了一种完整的服务网格解决方案。

它具有很多优点。包括:基于raft协议,比较简洁;支持健康检查,同时支持HTTP和DNS协议支持跨数据中心的WAN集群提供图形界面跨平台,支持Linux、Mac、Windows。

The key features of Consul are:

  • Service Discovery: Clients of Consul can register a service, such as api or mysql, and other clients can use Consul to discover providers of a given service. Using either DNS or HTTP, applications can easily find the services they depend upon.
  • Health Checking: Consul clients can provide any number of health checks, either associated with a given service (“is the webserver returning 200 OK”), or with the local node (“is memory utilization below 90%”). This information can be used by an operator to monitor cluster health, and it is used by the service discovery components to route traffic away from unhealthy hosts.
  • KV Store: Applications can make use of Consul’s hierarchical key/value store for any number of purposes, including dynamic configuration, feature flagging, coordination, leader election, and more. The simple HTTP API makes it easy to use.
  • Secure Service Communication: Consul can generate and distribute TLS certificates for services to establish mutual TLS connections. Intentions can be used to define which services are allowed to communicate. Service segmentation can be easily managed with intentions that can be changed in real time instead of using complex network topologies and static firewall rules.
  • Multi Datacenter: Consul supports multiple datacenters out of the box. This means users of Consul do not have to worry about building additional layers of abstraction to grow to multiple regions.

link

能干嘛?

  • 服务发现 - 提供HTTP和DNS两种发现方式。
  • 健康监测 - 支持多种方式,HTTP、TCP、Docker、Shell脚本定制化
  • KV存储 - Key、Value的存储方式
  • 多数据中心 - Consul支持多数据中心
  • 可视化Web界面

怎么玩:中文文档

安装并运行Consul

官网安装说明

Linux安装

sudo yum install -y yum-utils
sudo yum-config-manager --add-repo https://rpm.releases.hashicorp.com/RHEL/hashicorp.repo
sudo yum -y install consul
sudo yum -y install consul-enterprise.x86_64

验证安装

安装 Consul 后,通过打开一个新的终端会话并运行命令来验证安装是否正常consul。

consul

如果显示下面的信息,则安装成功

Usage: consul [--version] [--help] <command> [<args>]

Available commands are:
    acl            Interact with Consul's ACLs
    agent          Runs a Consul agent
    catalog        Interact with the catalog
    config         Interact with Consul's Centralized Configurations
...

启动consul

consul agent -dev -ui -node=consul-dev -client=ip

浏览器输入 - http://ip:8500 - 打开Consul控制页。
微服务(五)——服务注册与发现:Zookeeper&Consul-左眼会陪右眼哭の博客

服务提供者注册进Consul

  1. 新建Module支付服务cloud-providerconsul-payment8006

  2. POM

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <parent>
        <artifactId>springcloud</artifactId>
        <groupId>cn.kt</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <artifactId>cloud-providerconsul-payment8006</artifactId>

    <properties>
        <maven.compiler.source>8</maven.compiler.source>
        <maven.compiler.target>8</maven.compiler.target>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <!-- 引入自己定义的api通用包,可以使用Payment支付Entity -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>cn.kt</groupId>
            <artifactId>cloud-api-commons</artifactId>
            <version>${project.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <!--SpringCloud consul-server -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-consul-discovery</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <!-- SpringBoot整合Web组件 -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <!--日常通用jar包配置-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
            <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>

</project>
  1. YML
###consul服务端口号
server:
  port: 8006

spring:
  application:
    name: consul-provider-payment
####consul注册中心地址
  cloud:
    consul:
      host: localhost
      port: 8500
      discovery:
        #hostname: 127.0.0.1
        service-name: ${spring.application.name}
  1. 主启动类
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.cloud.client.discovery.EnableDiscoveryClient;

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableDiscoveryClient
public class PaymentMain8006
{
    public static void main(String[] args) {
            SpringApplication.run(PaymentMain8006.class, args);
    }
}
  1. 业务类Controller
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Value;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

import java.util.UUID;

@RestController
@Slf4j
public class PaymentController
{
    @Value("${server.port}")
    private String serverPort;

    @RequestMapping(value = "/payment/consul")
    public String paymentConsul()
    {
        return "springcloud with consul: "+serverPort+"\t   "+ UUID.randomUUID().toString();
    }
}
  1. 验证测试

服务消费者注册进Consul

  1. 新建Module消费服务cloud-consumerconsul-order80

  2. POM

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <parent>
        <artifactId>springcloud</artifactId>
        <groupId>cn.kt</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <artifactId>cloud-consumerconsul-order80</artifactId>

    <properties>
        <maven.compiler.source>8</maven.compiler.source>
        <maven.compiler.target>8</maven.compiler.target>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <!--SpringCloud consul-server -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-consul-discovery</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <!-- SpringBoot整合Web组件 -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <!--日常通用jar包配置-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
            <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
</project>
  1. YML
###consul服务端口号
server:
  port: 80

spring:
  application:
    name: cloud-consumer-order
####consul注册中心地址
  cloud:
    consul:
      host: localhost
      port: 8500
      discovery:
        #hostname: 127.0.0.1
        service-name: ${spring.application.name}
  1. 主启动类
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.cloud.client.discovery.EnableDiscoveryClient;

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableDiscoveryClient //该注解用于向使用consul或者zookeeper作为注册中心时注册服务
public class OrderConsulMain80
{
    public static void main(String[] args) {
            SpringApplication.run(OrderConsulMain80.class, args);
    }
}
  1. 配置Bean
import org.springframework.cloud.client.loadbalancer.LoadBalanced;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.web.client.RestTemplate;

@Configuration
public class ApplicationContextConfig
{
    @Bean
    @LoadBalanced
    public RestTemplate getRestTemplate()
    {
        return new RestTemplate();
    }
}
  1. Controller
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;
import org.springframework.web.client.RestTemplate;

import javax.annotation.Resource;

@RestController
@Slf4j
public class OrderConsulController
{
    public static final String INVOKE_URL = "http://consul-provider-payment";

    @Resource
    private RestTemplate restTemplate;

    @GetMapping(value = "/consumer/payment/consul")
    public String paymentInfo()
    {
        String result = restTemplate.getForObject(INVOKE_URL+"/payment/consul",String.class);
        return result;
    }
}
  1. 验证测试

运行consul,cloud-providerconsul-payment8006,cloud-consumerconsul-order80

http://ip:8500/ 主页会显示出consul,cloud-providerconsul-payment8006,cloud-consumerconsul-order80三服务。

  1. 访问测试地址 - http://localhost/consumer/payment/consul

三个注册中心异同点

组件名 语言CAP 服务健康检查 对外暴露接口 Spring Cloud集成
Eureka Java AP 可配支持 HTTP
Consul Go CP 支持 HTTP/DNS
Zookeeper Java CP 支持客户端 已集成

CAP:

  • C:Consistency (强一致性)
  • A:Availability (可用性)
  • P:Partition tolerance (分区容错性)

微服务(五)——服务注册与发现:Zookeeper&Consul-左眼会陪右眼哭の博客

最多只能同时较好的满足两个

CAP理论的核心是:一个分布式系统不可能同时很好的满足一致性,可用性和分区容错性这三个需求

因此,根据CAP原理将NoSQL数据库分成了满足CA原则、满足CP原则和满足AP原则三大类:

  • CA - 单点集群,满足—致性,可用性的系统,通常在可扩展性上不太强大。
  • CP - 满足一致性,分区容忍必的系统,通常性能不是特别高。
  • AP - 满足可用性,分区容忍性的系统,通常可能对一致性要求低一些。

AP架构(Eureka)

当网络分区出现后,为了保证可用性,系统B可以返回旧值,保证系统的可用性。

结论:违背了一致性C的要求,只满足可用性和分区容错,即AP

微服务(五)——服务注册与发现:Zookeeper&Consul-左眼会陪右眼哭の博客


CP架构(ZooKeeper/Consul)

当网络分区出现后,为了保证一致性,就必须拒接请求,否则无法保证一致性。

结论:违背了可用性A的要求,只满足一致性和分区容错,即CP。

微服务(五)——服务注册与发现:Zookeeper&Consul-左眼会陪右眼哭の博客

CP 与 AP 对立同一的矛盾关系。

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